Quechua, idioma oficial

On colonial language
How do you expect I learn your language if you treat me badly? your language is your vision of the world and your vision denies me equality.

Variedades de esta familia linguística son habladas por unas 3'260,000 personas (censo 2007), un 13% de la población. In 1492 there were more speakers of Nahuatl, the principal language in the Valley of Mexico, than speakers of English. And Quechua, the official language of the Inca empire, was more widely spoken than Italian, French or German. . . Although Indian suffered from hepatitis, intestinal parasites, yaws, general syphilis and pinta, deadly European and African diseases were quite foreign to them. . .

Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala’s El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno (letter to a king), completed in 1615, is one of the most exerting indictment of any regime written before Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago (1973).

1551 Conciliar Council of Lima declared that all Andean people who had lived before the conquest were burning in Hell. . .

1560 The Spanish produced their first Quechua lexicon and grammar book, and priests were ordered to pass a proficiency examination in the language. Twenty years later academic chairs for the study of Quechua were created in Lima and Quito. . .

1634 A royal decree ended the promotion of Quechua as a areligious language, and throughout the remainder of century no new Quechua religious and linguistic works were published.

But this policy failed throughout the Andes. Even after a century of Spanish rule, few Andean peoples learned Castilian. A language who had been the elite language during Inca rule became the language of the dominated and of those who occupied the poorest and most exploited ecological niches of the Andes.

As the conquest turned many distinctive Andean ethnic groups into generic Indians who spoke Quechua, it became associated with indigenous peoples who declined assimilation. In the eighteen century, Quechua became negatively associated with revolts against the Crown. In the most densely populated Quechua-speaking region of southern Peru, there was dozens of revolts between 1730 and 1783. The largest–the Tupac Amaru rebellion–coincided with new taxes and a depressed economy.

"En 1784, tres años después de la rebelión de Tupac Amaru II, el virrey Jaúregui dicta las reglas para la abolición de toda la enseñanza quechua, incluso prohibiendo su uso". Después de que Tupac Amaru II fue torturado y ejecutado en 1781, la administración decidió que ‘para estos indios eliminar el odio a los españoles que habían concebido. . . Deben vestirse con nuestra ropa española y hablar el idioma español. La literatura quechua fue prohibida junto con los Quipus. El presidente quechua de la Universidad de San Marcos desapareció y la política oficial se convirtió en "la extirpación del idioma indio". A los sacerdotes se les ordenó dar sermones solo en español, y los administradores predijeron que en solo cuatro años, el español se convertiría en el idioma común de las comunicaciones. Por los andes. Sin embargo, el régimen colonial no logró erradicar el quechua. O más bien, el hablante quechua se las arregla contra toda adversidad para mantener el conocimiento y la práctica de su idioma.

"In 1784, three years after the rebellion of Tupac Amaru II, Viceroy Jaúregui dictates the rules for the abolition of all Quechua teaching, even prohibiting its use." After Tupac Amaru II was tortured and executed in 1781, the administration decided that ‘for these Indians to eliminate hatred of the Spanish they had conceived. . . They should dress in our Spanish clothes and speak the Spanish language. Quechua literature was banned along with the Quipus. The Quechua president of the University of San Marcos disappeared and the official policy became "the extirpation of the Indian language". The priests were ordered to give sermons only in Spanish, and the administrators predicted that in just four years, Spanish would become the common language of communications. Through the Andes. However, the colonial regime failed to eradicate Quechua. Or rather, the Quechua speaker manages against all adversity to maintain the knowledge and practice of his language.

Although Quechua speakers knew they were at a serious disadvantage they refused to learn Spanish because it threatened the core of their identity. . . The first Quechua Bible appeared in 1988 and even then the Church had misgivings because it feared that biblical verses would become part of indigenous practices. Peru became the first country to recognize Quechua as one of its official languages in 1975.
 Un 27 de Mayo de 1975, el Quechua (in all its variations) es declarado por el gobierno como idioma oficial del Perú. 154 años después su proclamación como República independiente.

Ecuador conferred official status on the language in its 2006 constitution and in 2009 Bolivia adopted a new constitution in 2000 that recognized it as official along other 34 indigenous languages. . . In 2014 the PUCP university accepted its first thesis in Quechua. In December 2016 Peru will air its first news show in Quechua!

 Jayme A. Sokolow. The Great Encounter: Native Peoples and European Settlers in the Americas. p186-188 https://books.google.at/books?id=lGelDAAAQBAJ http://www.idiomaquechua.com/noticias/194-un-dia-como-hoy-27-el-quchua-es-oficializado-como-idioma-del-peru.html http://www.runasimi.de/q-rimaq/pir-wawa.gif